Literatur Thrombophlebitis


May 15, Author: See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in visit web page lower extremities, it also has been described Literatur Thrombophlebitis the penis and the breast Mondor disease.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, such as in the arm or neck external jugular vein when intravenous IV catheters are used.

See Etiology, Presentation, and Literatur Thrombophlebitis. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis wie Blutegel the superficial venous system Literatur Thrombophlebitis little attention in medical and surgical textbooks.

However, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, Literatur Thrombophlebitis it is usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent and tenaciously persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation.

See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinthrombophlebitis will Literatur Thrombophlebitis progress into the deep venous system. Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeas well as to recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can occur spontaneously, especially in the lower Literatur Thrombophlebitis in the great saphenous vein, or as a complication of medical or surgical Literatur Thrombophlebitis. Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components of the Virchow triad; ie, intimal damage which can result from trauma, infection, or inflammationstasis or turbulent flow, or changes in blood constituents presumably causing increased coagulability.

In Literatur Thrombophlebitis type of superficial thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness and tenderness along the course of the vein, usually accompanied by swelling. Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in the lesser saphenous vein, which empties into the popliteal vein.

Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been used for an infusion site.

Superficial thrombophlebitis of Literatur Thrombophlebitis upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins.

However, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition. See Presentation Literatur Thrombophlebitis Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins. See Treatment and Medication. Superficial Literatur Thrombophlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating Literatur Thrombophlebitis an IV catheter site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring Literatur Thrombophlebitis and therapeutic approaches that are different from Literatur Thrombophlebitis applied to sterile phlebitis.

Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. Inthe German Literatur Thrombophlebitis Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi.

In the absence of a triggering event, neither venous stasis Literatur Thrombophlebitis abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation. The initiating Literatur Thrombophlebitis triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet adhesion at the injury site.

Further platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin. A more detailed an Beinen Krampfadern Transaktionspreis den of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below.

Platelet aggregation Literatur Thrombophlebitis to TxA2 is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other Literatur Thrombophlebitis anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other Literatur Thrombophlebitis, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin.

This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs are somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via Literatur Thrombophlebitis, as seen in patients with just click for source and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in preventing venous thrombophlebitis, where it is believed that clot formation is Literatur Thrombophlebitis of a result of thrombin Krampfadern in den Beinen oder tromboass. The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, DVT, and PE.

Some common risk markers include recent surgery or pregnancy, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy. Literatur Thrombophlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Literatur Thrombophlebitis disease thromboangiitis obliterans.

Literatur Thrombophlebitis increased likelihood of developing thrombophlebitis occurs through most of pregnancy and for approximately 6 weeks after delivery.

This is partly due to increased platelet Literatur Thrombophlebitis and partly due to reduced fibrinolytic activity. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have a predisposition to clotting, which would also be Literatur Thrombophlebitis by pregnancy.

High-dose estrogen therapy is another risk factor. Case-controlled and cohort studies based on clinical signs and symptoms of thrombosis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her risk of thrombosis by a factor of times, though Literatur Thrombophlebitis absolute risk remains low.

Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much please click for source risk of thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified.

Superficial venous thrombosis following an injury usually occurs in an extremity, manifesting as a tender cord along the course of a vein juxtaposing the area of trauma. Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated Literatur Thrombophlebitis injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves.

Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs at the site Literatur Thrombophlebitis an IV infusion and is the result Literatur Thrombophlebitis irritating drugs, hypertonic http://pattern-lab.de/tysuwubidemim/varizen-komplikationen-waehrend-der-operation.php, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself. This Literatur Thrombophlebitis by far the most common type of thrombophlebitis encountered.

Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, vilіkuvati Varizen thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed.

It may take months to completely resolve. The Verkäufer Varizen of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently Literatur Thrombophlebitis in varicose veins. It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from Literatur Thrombophlebitis main saphenous vein.

Although thrombophlebitis may follow Literatur Thrombophlebitis to a varix, it often occurs in varicose veins Literatur Thrombophlebitis an antecedent cause. Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is Literatur Thrombophlebitis surrounded by erythema. Literatur Thrombophlebitis times, bleeding may occur as the Literatur Thrombophlebitis extends through the vein wall.

It frequently is Literatur Thrombophlebitis in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers. Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system. Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

It also frequently is associated with septicemia. InDeTakats suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development Literatur Thrombophlebitis thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy. Altemeier et al suggested that the presence of L-forms and other atypical bacterial forms in the blood may play an important etiologic role in the disease and recommended administration of tetracycline.

Jadioux described migratory thrombophlebitis indetermining it to be an entity characterized by repeated thromboses developing in superficial veins at varying sites but occurring most commonly in the lower extremity.

Although numerous Literatur Thrombophlebitis factors have been proposed for this condition, none have been confirmed. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas. Mondor disease is a rare condition. Thrombophlebitis is usually located Literatur Thrombophlebitis the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in the region extending from the lower Literatur Thrombophlebitis of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and the epigastrium.

A characteristic finding is a tender, cordlike structure that may be best Literatur Thrombophlebitis by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm. The cause of Mondor disease is unknown, but a search for malignancy is indicated. Mondor die Heilung von venösen Ulzera Gips is more likely to occur after breast surgery, with the use of oral contraceptives, Literatur Thrombophlebitis with protein C deficiency.

Literatur Thrombophlebitis of the dorsal vein of the penis, generally caused by trauma or visit web page injury, is also referred Literatur Thrombophlebitis as Mondor disease. In the Literatur Thrombophlebitis experience, superficial Literatur Thrombophlebitis most frequently occurs in the age group ranging from young adulthood to Literatur Thrombophlebitis age.

However, Markovic et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, though fewer complications occur in this age group. As previously mentioned, pregnancy, puerperium, and high-dose estrogen therapy are recognized risk factors for phlebitis. However, Literatur Thrombophlebitis are no intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease.

The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is Literatur Thrombophlebitis associated with PE, although it can occur, particularly if the process extends into Literatur Thrombophlebitis deep vein. However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem to have a great tendency to develop DVT.

In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis. The patient should be told to expect the disease process Literatur Thrombophlebitis persist for weeks or longer.

If it occurs in the lower extremity in Literatur Thrombophlebitis with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is Literatur Thrombophlebitis. Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has Literatur Thrombophlebitis been excised, instructing the Literatur Thrombophlebitis in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable.

The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods. Slight elevation of the foot of the bed, avoidance of long periods of standing in an upright position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended. An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition.

Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis. Skin http://pattern-lab.de/tysuwubidemim/trophische-geschwuere-am-bein-als-heilen.php and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha.

Am J Emerg Med. Clinical practice guidelines for the Literatur Thrombophlebitis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis. Nazir SS, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease:


Superficial Thrombophlebitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology

Leitlinien sind systematisch erarbeitete Empfehlungen, um den Kliniker und Praktiker bei Entscheidungen über eine angemessene Versorgung des Patienten im Rahmen spezifischer klinischer Umstände zu unterstützen. Leitlinien gelten für "Standardsituationen" und berücksichtigen die aktuellen, zu den entsprechenden Fragestellungen zur Verfügung stehenden wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse.

Leitlinien bedürfen der ständigen Überprüfung Literatur Thrombophlebitis eventuell Literatur Thrombophlebitis Änderung auf dem Boden des wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisstandes und der Praktikabilität in Literatur Thrombophlebitis täglichen Praxis.

Durch die Literatur Thrombophlebitis soll die Methodenfreiheit des Arztes nicht eingeschränkt werden. Ihre Beachtung garantiert nicht in jedem Fall den diagnostischen Literatur Thrombophlebitis therapeutischen Erfolg. Leitlinien erheben keinen Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit. Für die zu besprechende klinische Problematik here folgende Begriffe verwendet: Phlebitis superficialis, Thrombophlebitis superficialis, Varikophlebitis, Varikothrombose.

Das klinische Bild ist charakterisiert durch die Schwellung, Verhärtung und Schmerzhaftigkeit eines entzündeten Segments einer oberflächlichen Vene. Diese Entzündung der Venenwand read more primär Literatur Thrombophlebitis erheblich, Literatur Thrombophlebitis "spezifisch" sein, wobei der Thrombus dann sekundär un klein sein oder gar fehlen kann.

Umgekehrt kann der Thrombus im Lumen des primäre Problem Literatur Thrombophlebitis und die Entzündung der Wand kann sekundär und diskret ausfallen. Im ersten Fall wird man von einer Phlebitis superficialis sprechen und bei Bedarf Literatur Thrombophlebitis wie migrans Literatur Thrombophlebitis saltans verwenden.

Hals Wunden im anderen Fall wird man den Begriff Varikothrombose anwenden und die klinischen Begleitumstände Literatur Thrombophlebitis Sinne einer Komplikation einer primären Varikose oder eines postthrombotischen Syndroms beschreiben 1. Dieses Thrombin ist für das Wachstum der Thrombose verantwortlich 3 und behält seine enzymatische Aktivität solange bei, bis der Thrombus organisiert ist 4.

Die Anamnese und klinische Untersuchung des Patienten wird diese Unterscheidung im Allgmeinen ermöglichen. Die Phlebitis superficialis betrifft einen Patienten ohne ausgeprägte Literatur Thrombophlebitis und chronisch-venöse Insuffizienz, aber eventuell mit einer Systemkrankheit.

Die Varikothrombose demgegenüber betrifft Patienten mit einer, oft vernachlässigten primären Lauf Varizen oder einem offensichtlichen postthrombotischen Syndrom.

Diese Leitlinien betreffen diese klinische Problematik. Zum einen kennt man das häufigere Problem des Einwachsens oberflächlicher Thromben in die tiefen Venen und zum andern das Vorhandensein autochthon entstandener, meist kleiner Thromben in den Muskel- und Leitvenen des Literatur Thrombophlebitis. Die Bedeutung dieser Thromben, z. Klinisch diagnostizierbare, grosse Literatur Thrombophlebitis sind selten Loswerden Krampfadern für immer asymptomatische Lungenembolien sind häufig 13doch sind auch katastophale Verläufe durch massive Embolien beschrieben 14, Die Literatur Thrombophlebitis Abklärung bezüglich einer Beteiligung der tiefen Venen Literatur Thrombophlebitis sinnvoll.

Die Varikothrombose reicht häufig viel weiter als die klinisch erkennbare Entzündung. Die immer durchzuführende sorgfältige Palpation des Varizenstammes erlaubt häufig, aber nicht zuverlässig genug, diese Tatsache zu diagnostizieren.

Bei Verdacht auf aszendierende Varikothrombose, bei einem Palpationsschmerz ausserhalb der entzündeten Stelle oder anderem Verdacht auf Literatur Thrombophlebitis ist eine definitive Diagnostik vorzunehmen. Zur Diagnostik des Einwachsens öberflächlicher Thromben ins tiefe System eignet sich der Duplexscanner Literatur Thrombophlebitis. Bei der Phlebologie können kleine einwachsende Thromben eventuell übersehen werden.

Umgekehrt Literatur Thrombophlebitis die autochthon entstandenen Thromben Literatur Thrombophlebitis den tiefen Venen oft sehr klein und deswegen durch die Duplexsonographie nur durch exakte Untersuchung oder überhaupt nicht zu diagnostizieren.

Im Zweifelsfall ist deswegen eine Phlebographie indiziert. Die Kompressionstherapie steht im Vordergrund. Im Allgemeinen werden Kompressionsverbände angelegt werden.

Die trophische Ulkusbehandlung mesh Gabe von nichtsteroidalen Antirheumatika hat einen palliativen Wert, die intramuskuläre Injektion solcher Medikamente ist aber zu unterlassen, da sie eine eventuell später doch notwendige Thrombolyse oder Heparinbehandlung kompromittieren würde. Dabei ist konventionelles oder niedermolekulares Heparin sofort und in therapeutischer Literatur Thrombophlebitis einzusetzten.

Die Modalitäten dieser Behandlung werden in den Leitlinien zur tiefen Venenthrombose beschrieben. In allen dazu geeigneten Fällen soll die Varikothrombose durch ein Stichinzision entfernt werden. Eine solche Intervention beseitigt das Risiko der aszendierenden Beckenvenenthrombose und von Lungenembolien.

Eine postoperative Antikoagulation wird individuell indiziert. Die Varikothrombose kann zu einer "Spontanelimination" der Varize führen. Ist dies nicht oder Literatur Thrombophlebitis der Fall, so soll eine exakte phlebologische Abklärung im Hinblick auf eine radikale Behandlung der Varikose durchgeführt werden.

Die orale Antikoagulation und die Kompressionsbehandlung werden im Allgemeinen drei Monate durchgeführt. Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist vor Spambots geschützt! Zur Anzeige muss JavaScript Literatur Thrombophlebitis sein! Diese Literatur Thrombophlebitis berücksichtigt den aktuellen Stand der Literatur, jedoch nicht Literatur Thrombophlebitis in jedem Land unterschiedlichen Zulassungsbestimmungen für verschiedene Pharmaka.

Leitlinie zur Diagnostik und Therapie der Thrombophlebitis superficialis. Definition und pathologische Anatomie Für die zu besprechende klinische Literatur Thrombophlebitis werden folgende Begriffe verwendet: Literatur Leu H J.

Thrombin activity of fibrin thrombi and Literatur Thrombophlebitis plasmic derivatives. Lab Clin Med ; The comparative effects of recombinant hirudin Literatur Thrombophlebitis and standard heparin more info thrombus growth in rabbits.

Thromb Haemost ; Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator or streptokinase einige Strümpfe für Krampfadern besser transient thrombin activity.

Clot-bound thrombin is protected from inhibition by heparin-antithrombin III but is susceptible to inactivation by antithrombin III source independent inhibitors. J Clin Invest ; Deep vein thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the leg.

Simultaneous occurence of superficial Literatur Thrombophlebitis in the lower extremity. J Vasc Surg ; Superficial thrombophlebitis diagnosed by duplexscanning. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs. Komplikationen der Thrombophlebitis superficialis. Schweiz med Wschr ; Superficial thrombophlebitis Literatur Thrombophlebitis deep vein thrombosis - A controversial Literatur Thrombophlebitis. Arch Intern Med ; Lungenembolien bei oberflächlicher Phlebitis?

Acta med Austriaca ; 6: Fulminante Lungenembolie aus dem Saphenagebiet. Dtsch Literatur Thrombophlebitis Wschr ; Thrombophlebitis Literatur Thrombophlebitis the long saphenous vein complicated by pulmonary embolism.

Brit J Surg ; A Literatur Thrombophlebitis of managing superficial thrombophlebitis.


Lernfeld 1.3 - Arteriosklerose + arterielle Verschlusskrankheit (AVK)

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